This article from the American Muslim website was submitted to us recently. We feel the information provided offers another perspective on Islamic Terrorism. The editors do not necessarily agree with all of their views but we feel it would add to the discussion.
Al-Shabab are criminal terrorists not jihadist
by Sheila Musaji
On TAM we have a lengthy collection of fatwas, statements by scholars and community activists, from America and around the world, condemning extremism and terrorism titled Muslim Voices Against Extremism and Terrorism . We also have a collection of articles titled How mainstream Muslims understand the term “jihad”. Muslim have been speaking out against this criminal element among Muslims falsely claiming Islamic justification for their crimes for many years.
Only two weeks ago there was a National Conference on Extremism held in Somalia. All Africa reported that “A group of 165 Somali religious leaders issued a fatwa condemning al-Shabaab”:
… The clerics said al-Shabaab was a “strayed group” attempting to divert Muslims from practicing their faith. They also said al-Shabaab was wrong to label the Somali government an apostate government, as it works under Muslim principles.
The clerics called on al-Shabaab to repent, and urged Somalis not to join the group, support it or shelter its members. The communiqué also asked Somalis to report al-Shabaab members to the Somali authorities, and said both the government and civilians should support the fight against the militants.
Prime Minister Abdi Farah Shirdon, who gave the closing remarks at the conference, said the Somali federal government would take resolutions from the conference under consideration in its efforts to fight extremism, UN-funded Radio Bar-Kulan reported. Religious leaders, scholars, elders and intellectuals from across the country and the diaspora met to devise solutions to increase security and stability in Somalia.
BBC had more details on the Fatwa:
… Somali President Hassan Sheikh Mohamud opened the government-organised conference that drew Somali scholars, elders and imams from both within the country and abroad. At the end of the four-day conference, the seven points of the religious edict were read out by Islamic scholar Sheikh Abdirizak Ahmed Mohamud:
• “Al-Shabab has strayed from the correct path of Islam, leading the Somali people onto the wrong path. The ideology they are spreading is a danger to the Islamic religion and the existence of the Somali society.
• “The Somali government is an Islamic administration; it is forbidden to fight against it or regard its members as infidels.
• “Al-Shabab, an extremist group, must atone to God and must cease its erroneous ideology and criminal actions.
• “It is forbidden to join, sympathise or give any kind of support to al-Shabab.
• “It is a religious duty to refuse shelter to al-Shabab members, who must be handed over to Somali institutions responsible for security.
• “It is a taboo to negotiate on behalf of al-Shabab members in custody or release them from jail.
• “Somali officials have a religious duty to protect the Somali people from the atrocities of al-Shabab. The Somali public also has an obligation to assist the government in its security operations against al-Shabab.”
Nairobi-based Somali analyst Mohamed Abdullahi told the BBC’s Newsday programme that the fatwa, issued by so many prominent scholars, is likely to sway opinions on the ground, but is unlikely to change the path of those in the group’s top leadership.
“The fatwa includes a security element of community policing against al-Shabab,” he said. But it should be coupled with other efforts to win the hearts and minds of people on the ground, he added. “There must be another parallel programme to ensure that those young men who joined for economic reasons, for instance, are provided with employment or opportunities as well as convincing those who are really not extremist in ideology.” …
And, although it is clear that the overwhelming majority of Muslim scholars and ordinary Muslims reject extremism and terrorism, and have condemned each and every act carried out by criminal terrorists, they continue in this criminal behavior. Obviously, groups like al-Shabab, al-Qaeda, Boko Haram, the Taliban, etc. really don’t care what Muslim scholars or the majority of ordinary Muslims have to say. They continue to attempt to justify or cloak their criminal activities by claiming an Islamic justification that doesn’t exist in reality. And, they are as likely to kill Muslims as non-Muslims because their fanatical views see everyone who doesn’t share their views as the enemy.
BBC reportedthis latest atrocity in Nairobi Kenya follows a series of atrocities in Somalia designed to terrorize the local population. A local African paper Sabahi discussed other violent acts carried out by al-Shabab in Somalia against local Muslims who don’t support their criminal activities. The title of a 2010 article in Africa Witness got it right There is nothing Islamic about al-Shabab. That article noted: ”… Let’s look at the formal name of al Shabaab, which is Harakat al Shabaab Mujahedeen, meaning Movement of Warrior Youth (MWY). There is nothing Islamic about this name. In my opinion, al Shabaab is a political movement trying to attain its goal by tarnishing the good name and image of Islam. As Muslims, we strongly condemn the recent terrorist attacks in Kampala, which caused the death and injury of several people. We extend our heartfelt condolences and sympathies to the families, relatives and friends of the victims. Ugandans should know there is no room for terrorism in Islam. Islam totally forbids all forms of terrorism and aims at bringing peace, unity and love to humanity. …”
And, after all of this previous condemnation, Al-Shabab has stormed a shopping mall in Kenya, and left numerous people dead and wounded, and taken others hostage in an ongoing act of terrorism.
… Al Shabaab, which has links to al Qaeda and is battling Kenyan and other African peacekeepers in Somalia, had repeatedly threatened attacks on Kenyan soil if Nairobi did not pull its troops out of the Horn of Africa country.
“The Kenyan govt (government) is pleading with our Mujahideen (holy warriors) inside the mall for negotiations,” the group said under its official Twitter handle @HSM_Press. “There will be no negotiations whatsoever at #Westgate.” Another al Shabaab tweet read: “For long we have waged war against the Kenyans in our land, now it’s time to shift the battleground and take the war to their land.” …
VOA reports that the Inter-religious Council of Kenya has issued a statement condemning the attack in Nairobi.
… Reading the statement on behalf of the religious leaders, Supreme Council of Kenya Muslims Secretary General Adan Wachu said despite the latest attack which is being claimed by the Somali militant group al-Shabab, the Kenyan people are united to face the challenge.
Wachu also said they are working together with other religious leaders to avoid religious violence. “We, the religious leaders, are engaged in robust dialogue to ensure that these relations are not just maintained but also made stronger. We are convinced beyond doubt that the attempt to sow seeds of discord between Muslims and Christians will fail miserably and that we shall remain united,” said Wachu. …
How dare these criminals call themselves “Mujahideen” or even Muslims. There is no justification for such actions in Islam. How dare they call this jihad. How dare they include any term related to Islam in the name of their criminal enterprise.
To repeat what mainstream Muslims feel about this despicable crime. As Muslims, we strongly condemn this terrorist attack which caused the death and injury of innocent people. We extend our heartfelt condolences and sympathies to the families, relatives and friends of the victims. Most Muslims don’t accept criminals or terrorists defining themselves as “jihadis”, we strongly object to their use of this term for criminal acts of hirabah. Extremists and terrorists do not have the right to co-opt or hijack or defame the term jihad by their criminal interpretations. We reject the extremist/terrorist definition of Jihad in favor of the traditional, legitimate, respectable, spiritual concept.
Al-Shabab, Al-Qaeda, Boko Haram, the Taliban or any Muslims engaged in or defending terrorism, or attacks on civilians are not engaged in jihad but in HIRABAH, no matter what their self definition. The use of the term jihad to describe acts that are reprehensible is an attempt to justify unjustifiable actions. They may be Muslims, but their actions have nothing to do with Islam. Muslim extremists are attacking minority communities, including Shia, Ahmadi, Christians, Sikhs, Sufis, etc. Even in countries where communities have lived together in relative peace for centuries, there is now a lack of tolerance, and even violence towards minorities. In Pakistan, whose “Quaidi Azam” or great leader and founding father, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, was a Shia, the Shia are now undergoing intense persecution.
Muslim communities need to ask themselves where this strain of extremism is coming from, who is promoting it, and why are so many being radicalized in spite of the clear teachings of Islam? Who is teaching this perversion of Islam and why are young people listening to them instead of the overwhelming majority of traditional scholars? What has changed in the last few decades, and how can ordinary Muslims counter this perversion of Islam in a meaningful way?
Some news sources are reporting that there are foreigners including Americans among the Al-Shabab criminals. As an American Muslim I believe that the fatwa issued by the scholars in Somalia applies everywhere. The ideology extremists are spreading is a danger to everyone. It is wrong to sympathize with or give any kind of support to al-Shabab or any other extremist groups. It is a religious duty to refuse shelter to known members of such terrorist groups, and if any are known in our communities they should be reported to law enforcement.
Shahed Amanullah has sent this message. You may read about the terrorist attacks on the Westgate Mall in Nairobi and think there is nothing you can do. There’s always something you can do. While al-Shabaab goes on a rampage, using vulnerable Somali youth as cannon fodder in the process, Somali youth leaders like Mohamed Ali are busy mobilizing Somalis to push back. A few weeks ago, he launched a Generation Change chapter in Mogadishu (Generation Change Mogadishu), and inspired 50 of his peers to work on projects that rebuild the country and take it back from the extremists. The Generation Change Kenya chapter in Nairobi is also doing great work in this area. Please give them your encouragement, your advice, and your support so that they can show the extremists that these youth won’t be manipulated anymore for evil ends.
Background on the Al Shabab organization http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2013/9/21/who-is-al-shabab.html
ARTICLES DISCUSSING THE MEANING OF JIHAD
This list of articles, primarily by Muslims, should be very helpful in understanding how Muslims understand the term, and how they feel about its’ misuse by both terrorists and Islamophobes:
A Call to Harabah, Aziz Poonawalla http://www.altmuslim.com/a/a/a/2083/
A Christian jihad?, Khaled Diab http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/a_christian_jihad
A detailed fatwa – Defending the Transgressed by Censuring the Reckless against the Killing of Civilians, Shaykh Muhammad Afifi al-Akiti http://www.mereislam.info/articles/Defending-the-Transgressed_Shaykh-M-A-Al-Akiti.pdf
A Message to American Muslims, Imam Tammad Adi http://www.islamfortoday.com/adi04.htm
A Muslim Sage Visits the USA by M. Shahid Alam (Mulla Nasruddin stories on the topic of 9/11) http://www.theamericanmuslim.org/2003sept_comments.php?id=383_0_22_0_C
A Spiritual Jihad Against Terrorism (5 parts), Sheila Musaji http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/a_spiritual_jihad_against_terrorism_part_i
A Terrorist By Any Other Name, Jane Chastain http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=27095
A Time for Introspection: “The worst enemies of Islam are from within”, Hamza Yusuf http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/a_time_for_introspection_the_worst_enemies_of_islam_are_from_within/
A World Out of Touch With Itself, Rabbi Michael Lerner, http://www.theamericanmuslim.org/2002sept_comments.php?id=75_0_14_0_C
A Memo to American Muslims, M.A. Muqtedar Khan, http://www.theamericanmuslim.org/2002jan_comments.php?id=170_0_7_0_C
A Muslims anguish in the Midst of the Attack on America, A. Rashied Omar, http://theamericanmuslim.org/2002sept_comments.php?id=103_0_14_0_C
A Time for Renewal, Ali Ahmed Minai, http://www.theamericanmuslim.org/2002sept_comments.php?id=107_0_14_0_C
Against the Nihilism of Terror: Jihad as Testimony to Transcendence, S. Parvez Manzoor http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/terrorism_against_the_nihilism_of_terror_jihad_as_testimony_to_transcendenc
America as a Jihad State: Middle Eastern perceptions of modern American theopolitics, Abdal-Hakim Murad http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/america_as_a_jihad_state_middle_eastern_perceptions_of_modern_american
American Muslims Have A Special Obligation, Ingrid Mattson, http://www.beliefnet.com/story/89/story_8987_1.html
American Muslims and Scholars Denounce Terrorism, Statement from Center for the Study of Islam and Democracy, http://www.theamericanmuslim.org/2002sept_comments.php?id=132_0_14_0_C
America’s Tragedy, Shaykh Hamza Yusuf http://www.zaytuna.org/tragedy.html
The Amman Initiative: A Theological Counter-Attack Against Terrorism, S. Abdallah Schleifer http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/the_amman_initiative_a_theological_counter_attack_against_terrorism/
An Open Letter to America and the World, Asma’el Muhaiyaddeen, http://www.theamericanmuslim.org/2002sept_comments.php?id=70_0_14_0_C
An American Prayer to Remember September 11th, Omar Ricci, http://www.theamericanmuslim.org/2002sept_comments.php?id=68_0_14_0_C
Attitudes of Ignorance, Parvez Ahmed http://www.iviews.com/Articles/articles.asp?ref=CD0408-2420
Beware of Injustice: It’s Hell, Mahbubur Rehman http://www.islamicity.com/articles/Articles.asp?ref=IC0309-2095
Bin Laden’s Violence is a Heresy Against Islam, Abdal-Hakim Murad, http://www.islamfortoday.com/murad04.htm
Bin Laden’s Fatwa: A Call to Harabah, Aziz H. Poonawalla, http://theamericanmuslim.org/2003march_comments.php?id=269_0_18_0_C
Bringing Back Real Islam, Fuad Nahdi http://www.guardian.co.uk/comment/story/0,3604,1187183,00.html
The Call to Jihad, Tariq Ramadan http://www.tariqramadan.com/spip.php?article65
Clarifications About the Concept of Jihad in Islam, Maulvi Yahya Nomani (tr. Yoginder Sikand) http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/clarifications_about_the_concept_of_jihad_in_islam
Combatting Terrorism, M. Shahid Alam, http://www.islam21.net/pages/keyissues/key7-9.htm
The Concept of Jihad in Islam By Maulana Wahiduddin Khan, (tr. by Yoginder Sikand) http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/the_concept_of_jihad_in_islam_by_maulana_wahiduddin_khan
Counterterrorism, M.A. Muqtedar Khan http://www.mpac.org/news_article_display.aspx?ITEM=224
Creating Common Platforms Between Muslim and Western Societies to Tackle Extremist Discourse,
S. Abdallah Schleifer http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/creating_common_platforms_between_muslim_and_western_societies_to_tack
“Creative Destruction”: Exposing the Ideological Roots of Modern Terrorism, Dr. Robert Dickson Crane http://www.theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/creative_destruction_exposing_the_ideological_roots_of_modern_terrorism/
Dare I say “Jihad”, Jeff Siddiqui http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/dare_i_say_jihad
Dept. of Homeland Security Urges Caution With Words http://www.cnn.com/2008/US/05/30/terrorist.terms/
Deviations in the Concept and Practice of Jihad, Maulana Waris Mazhari (tr. Yoginder Sikand) http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/deviations_in_the_concept_and_practice_of_jihad1
Dialectics of Terror by M. Shahid Alam http://theamericanmuslim.org/2003sept_comments.php?id=386_0_22_0_C
The Evolution of ‘Jihad’ in Islamist Political Discourse, Farish A. Noor http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/the_evolution_of_jihad_in_islamist_political_discourse
From Defensive to Offensive Warfare:The Use and Abuse of Jihad in the Muslim World, Dr. Abdulaziz Sachedina http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/from_defensive_to_offensive_warfarethe_use_and_abuse_of_jihad_in_the_muslim
Harvard Jihad Speech Controversy, Sheila Musaji http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/6_2002_harvard_jihad_speech_controversy
Hirabah – Jihad – Terrorism – Violence – Just War – Crusades (TAM article collection) http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/hirabah_jihad_terrorism_violence_just_war_crusades
Hirabah versus Jihad, Dr. Robert D. Crane http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/terrorism_hirabah_versus_jihad
Hirabah versus Jihad: Rescuing Jihad from The al Qaeda Blasphemy, Jim Guirard http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/terrorism_hirabah_versus_jihad_rescuing_jihad_from_the_al_qaeda_blasphemy
Home-grown imams fight home-grown extremism, Aftab Ahmad Malik http://www.altmuslim.com/a/a/a/2707/
How Muslim Americans Really Responded to the Events of 9/11, Riad Abdelkarim & Jason Erb, http://www.counterpunch.org/riad0907.html
Interpretation and Exceptionalism, Asma Barlas, http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/interpretation_and_exceptionalism
Interpreting the Islamic Ethics of War and Peace, Sohail H. Hashmi, http://www.elca.org/jle/articles/contemporary_issues/article.hashmi_sohail_h.html
Inventing Suicidal Jihadists, Hasan Zillur Rahim http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/inventing_suicidal_jihadists
Interview: Khaled Abou El Fadl: Jihad Gone Wrong http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/interview_khaled_abou_el_fadl_jihad_gone_wrong
Is Islam more violent than other religions?: Is the Qur’an inherently violent?, Sheila Musaji http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/response_to
Is there such a thing as religious terrorism?, Sheila Musaji http://www.theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/is_there_such_a_thing_as_religious_terrorism/
Islam Means Surrender to God, Not Violence http://www.iviews.com/Articles/articles.asp?ref=IC0409-2459
Islam, the Religion of Peace, Sr. Ruqaiyyah Waris Maqsood http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/islam_the_religion_of_peace
Islam: Religion or Ideology?, Imam Zaid Shakir http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/islam_religion_or_ideology/
Islamic or Muslim Terrorism and Extremism: Are they all Contradictions in Terms?, Jeremy Henzell-Thomas http://www.theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/islamic_or_muslim_terrorism_and_extremism_are_they_all_contradictions_in_te/
Islamic Politics, Muslim Militancy and ‘Jihadist’ Movements, Maulana Waris Mazhari (tr. Yoginder Sikand) http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/islamic_politics_muslim_militancy_and_jihadist_movements
‘Islamic terrorism’ an insult that distorts reality, Jimmy E. Jones http://www.theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/islamic_terrorism_an_insult_that_distorts_reality/
It’s Not Jihad It’s Unholy Hirabah, Jim Guirard http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/terrorism_its_not_jihad_its_unholy_hirabah
Islamophobes See “Jihad” Everywhere, Sheila Musaji http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/jihad-everywhere
Jewish sages on “lesser jihad” and “greater jihad”, Svend White http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/jewish_sages_on_lesser_jihad_and_greater_jihad
Jihad, John Esposito http://www.aljazeerah.info/Opinion%20editorials/2003%20Opinion%20Editorials/July/18%20o/Understanding%20Islam,%20By%20John%20Esposito.htm
Jihad Against The Abuse Of Jihad, Abukar Arman http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/jihad_against_the_abuse_of_jihad
The Jihad Against the Jihadis: How moderate Muslim leaders waged war on extremists—and won, Fareed Zakaria http://www.thedailybeast.com/newsweek/2010/02/11/the-jihad-against-the-jihadis.html
Jihad Against Racism, Abdul Malik Mujahid http://www.crescentlife.com/spirituality/jihad_against_racism.htm
Jihad Against Violence launched in U.K. http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2011/jun/06/muslim-womens-group-jihad-violence
Jihad Against Violence: Muslim Women’s Struggle for Peace, WISE statement http://www.wisemuslimwomen.org/about/shuracouncil/#jihad and PDF http://www.wisemuslimwomen.org/images/uploads/Jihad_against_Violence_Digest(color).pdf
Jihad and Ethics: A Survey of the Current Literature, S. Parvez Manzoor http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/jihad_and_ethics_a_survey_of_the_current_literature1
Jihad and the Modern World, Dr. Sherman Jackson http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/jihad_and_the_modern_world
Jihad? But What About Other Verses in the Qur’an?, Asghar Ali Engineer http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/jihad_but_what_about_other_verses_in_the_quran
Jihad: Concept, history and Contemporary Application, Sheikh Ali Gomaa http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/jihad-concept-history-and-contemporary-application/0019994
Jihad, Empire and the Ethics of War and Peace, S Parvez Manzoor http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/jihad_empire_and_the_ethics_of_war_and_peace
Jihad Incorporated: An Assessment, Dr. Robert D. Crane http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/jihad_incorporated_an_assessment
Jihad – Islam’s Struggle For Truth, Mansur al-Mujahid (Vincent Cornell) http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/jihad_islams_struggle_for_truth
Jihad: It’s True Meaning and Purpose, Dr. Muzammil H. Siddiqi http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/jihad_its_true_meaning_and_purpose
Jihad of Islamophobes, Hussein Rashid http://www.religiondispatches.org/dispatches/husseinrashid/6443/jihad_of_islamophobes/
Jihad Renogiated, Yusuf al Qaradawi http://www.islamonline.net/english/Contemporary/2003/10/Article02.shtml
Jihadism is Kufr, not Islam, Sultan Shaheen http://www.islamfortoday.com/shaheen01.htm
Just War and Jihad, Bilal A. Malik, http://www.amherst.edu/~bamalik/docs/just-war-and-jihad-frame.html
Language and war in the Middle East, Ali Alarabi http://www.theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/language_and_war_in_the_middle_east/
Maslow and the Fourth Jihad, Dr. Robert D. Crane http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/maslow_and_the_fourth_jihad
Memo to Mr. Bin Laden: Go to Hell!, Muqtedar Khan, http://www.theamericanmuslim.org/2003march_comments.php?id=293_0_18_0_C
Mindless Martyrs, Shahed Amanullah http://www.world-crisis.com/more/46_0_1_0_M4/
The Muslim Community: Where We Stand 1994, Hamza Yusuf http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/the_muslim_community_where_we_stand_1994/
Muslim Reactions to September 11th, Sheila Musaji, http://www.theamericanmuslim.org/2002sept_comments.php?id=39_0_14_30_C
Muslim scholars reject bin Laden’s idea of Jihad http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/national/39887_islam22.shtml
Muslim Terrorists Embrace a Very Secular Heresy, Abdal Hakim Murad http://argument.independent.co.uk/commentators/story.jsp?story=516991
Muslim Victims of September 11th Attack http://islam.about.com/blvictims.htm
Muslim Violence, Christian Non-Violence: People in Glass Houses Should Not Throw Words, Sheila Musaji http://www.theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/muslim_violence_christian_non_violence_people_in_glass_houses_should_not_th/
Muslim Voices Against Extremism and Terrorism list of article collections and resources on this and other topics including responses to Islamophobic claims.
– Part I & II Fatwas & Statements by Muslim Scholars & Organizations against extremism and terrorism
– Part III Statements & Articles by Individuals
– Part IV A few Quotes A-K, and L-Z
– Part V Muslim Voices Promoting Islamic Non Violent Solutions
– Part VI Qur’an & Hadith Against Extremism and Terrorism
– Part VII Selective Hearing of Muslim Voices Against Extremism and Terrorism
– Part VIII Religious terrorism is an oxymoron, Sheila Musaji
– Part IX Throwing Stones at the Qur’an From a Biblical Glass House, Sheila Musaji
– Part X Claim that all terrorists are Muslims ignores history
– Part XI A Spiritual Jihad Against Terrorism (5 parts), Sheila Musaji
Part XII Muslim Scholars Appeal to Christian Scholars for Dialogue and Peace – “A Common Word”, Sheila Musaji
Part XIII Muslim Violence, Christian Non-Violence: People in Glass Houses Should Not Throw Words, Sheila Musaji
Muslim World Condemns Attacks on U.S., http://www.theamericanmuslim.org/2002sept_comments.php?id=127_0_14_30_C
Muslims Must Reclaim Islam From Hate Filled Zealots http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/opinion/85431_mona911.shtml
My Fatwa on the Fanatics, Ziauddin Sarwar, http://observer.guardian.co.uk/print/0,3858,4262753-108959,00.html
New Frontiers in Conflict Management: A Grand Strategy to Wage Jihad Against Terrorist Muslim, Dr. Robert D. Crane http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/new_frontiers_in_conflict_management_a_grand_strategy_to_wage_jihad_against
Peace and Justice in Islam, Imam Zaid Shakir http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/peace_and_justice_in_islam/
Qur’an 2:216 Commentary http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/quran_2216_commentary
Recapturing Islam from the Terrorists, Abdal-Haikim Murad, http://www.islamfortoday.com/murad01.htm
Religious Authority, Extremism, and the Amman Message, H.A. Hellyer http://www.altmuslim.com/a/a/a/2733/
Reply to Robert Spencer on his translation of jihad as holy war, Yusuf Smith http://www.blogistan.co.uk/blog/mt.php/2006/06/24/spencer_the_ndu_scholars_the_securocrat_and_his_books
Rescuing jihad from the terrorists, Salman Ahmad http://onfaith.washingtonpost.com/onfaith/panelists/salman_ahmad/2010/01/rescuing_jihad_from_the_terrorists.html
Russia’s 9/11 in Chechnya: Waging Jihad against Muslims who Hijack Islam, Dr. Robert D. Crane http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/russias_9_11_in_chechnya_waging_jihad_against_muslims_who_hijack_islam
Spiritual and Intellectual Jihad: A Best-Case Scenario for the Holy Land, Dr. Robert D. Crane http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/spiritual_and_intellectual_jihad_a_best_case_scenario_for_the_holy_land
Spiritual significance of jihad, Syed Hossein Nasr http://www.al-islam.org/al-serat/jihad-nasr.htm
Striving for Veritas at Harvard (Jihad Speech), Jim Guirard http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/striving_for_veritas_at_harvard
Struggle Against Terrorism, Mazin Qumsiyeh http://www.cactus48.com/struggle.html
Terrorism, Jihad, and the Struggle for New Understandings, Dr. Antony T. Sullivan http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/terrorism_terrorism_jihad_and_the_struggle_for_new_understandings
Terrorism Has No Place in Islam, Zaki Badawi http://www.arabnews.com/?page=5ǧion=0&article=9314&d=28&m=9&y=2001
Terrorism is at Odds With Isamic Tradition, Khaled Abou El Fadl, http://www.muslim-lawyers.net/news/index.php3?aktion=show&number=78
Terrorists Are Mass Murderers, Not Martyrs http://www.crescentlife.com/heal%20the%20world/terrorists_are_mass_murderers_not_martyrs.htm
Thank God Someone Is Listening to Us – Terrorism Is Not Jihad, Sheila Musaji http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/thank_god_someone_is_listening_to_us_terrorism_is_not_jihad
Towards A Definition of Terrorism, Ayatollah M. Ali Taskhiri http://al-islam.org/al-tawhid/definition-terrorism.htm
Turning Murderers Into Martyrs, Dr. Farish Noor, http://www.theamericanmuslim.org/2003sept_comments.php?id=13_0_22_30_C
Twin Towers Viewed From a Western Minaret, Michael Wolfe, http://www.theamericanmuslim.org/2002sept_comments.php?id=113_0_14_30_C
UK Muslims Urged to Fight Terrorism http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/3585671.stm
Winning the War of Ideas, Dr. Hesham Hassaballa http://www.theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/winning_the_war_of_ideas/
When In Doubt, Call It ‘Jihad’, Svend White http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/when_in_doubt_call_it_jihad
Who Are You Calling a Jihadist?, Sumbul Ali-Karamali http://www.huffingtonpost.com/sumbul-alikaramali/who-are-you-calling-a-jihadist-_b_2303361.html
You Say Jihadi, I Say Extremist, Zahed Amanullah http://www.altmuslim.com/a/a/b/2709/